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Backstroke仰式, Swimming游泳

USA Swimming:Backstroke_The Best Pull仰泳_最好的划手

本文取自 USA Swimming 的高效能顧問 Russell Mark 12/20/2011 “BACKSTROKE: THE BEST PULL”的文章。


There was a time when people thought the best backstroke pull started in deep water and then swept up and then back down at the finish. Video of the best backstrokers in the world shows us differently – that the backstroke pull should start and stay shallow until the downward finish. The proof is definitive. All of the best backstrokers swim this way: Ryan Lochte, Aaron Peirsol, Missy Franklin, Elizabeth Beisel, Camille LaCourt, Natalie Coughlin.
曾經有段時間,人們認為最好的仰泳開始划深的水,然後往上掃,再下壓。 但是影片中世界上最好的仰泳選手展示出來卻不同 – 仰泳划手位置保持很淺,直到最後向下完成。這證明是可靠的,最好的仰泳選手是這樣游的:Ryan Lochte, Aaron Peirsol, Missy Franklin, Elizabeth Beisel, Camille LaCourt, Natalie Coughlin.

The principle is simple: You want to move forward, so you want your arms to push as much water backward. You also want to use the strongest muscles, and do so by keeping your arm shallow and by your side. The opposite isn’t as strong – reaching for “deep water,” where your arm has to reach behind your body.
這原理很簡單:你要前進,所以你想你的手臂盡可能向後推最多的水。你也想​​用最強的肌肉,要這樣做得藉由保持你的手位置淺,且在你身旁。 相反的,若你你的手臂要伸到你的身體後面划深的水,力量是沒那麼強。


IMHO: 原文意思是- 手淺且在身旁(較易施力) vs. 手深且在身後(手臂與背角度>180度,較不易施力),自己試一下手扳不同角度施力看看就知道了。

手在身後難施力而且對肩部不是個健康的姿式,不過我不認同直接跳結論,手划淺一定比深好。 手長在身上,手划深淺自然與身體轉動(body roll)角度大小有關,轉動大一些可發揮轉矩效果(Torque),肩也較容易出水面,手也可甩遠些入水,轉動大的通常划深點;當然如果轉動小的還划深,就是跟自己過不去,手扳到身後不但不易施力,又冒肩傷風險。

影響泳姿的關鍵因素很多,我並不覺得最好的仰泳選手一定都是划得淺,原文提到的 Ryan Lochte 我看一點也不淺,Michael Phelps和奧運金牌得主Jeff Rouse也不算淺。 我想划深划淺都有,因人而異吧! 自己還是得試試不同方式的效果,選擇適合自己體能條件的方式 ! 我想頂尖選手泳姿或稍有不同,背後都有一些體能體型優勢或技術原理支持他們這樣游,如果不去理解就只想依樣畫葫蘆,就算能裝成那樣子,也未必有那樣子的效果! 看一下日本 入江陵介(Irie Ryosuke)非常與眾不同的特別游法吧! 身體轉動超大也划超深的!

也許你要問為什麼有人要划深? 其中一個原因是通常深水比較靜(or比較硬)抓水較有感,太淺的水有可能因自己前進過水技術不精,已經攪亂身旁的水,使你抓不住水,更不要說使力了。


Backstroke Pull

Backstroke Pull

以下是原文對仰泳淺划手動作的說明:

  1. Starts and stays shallow, with the hand just underneath the surface of the water. Notice that the hand is hidden behind the lane line, which means the hand is never deeper than the lane line. [Pictures (a), (b), (c)]

    划手開始就保持淺的位置,手在水面下。請注意,手在水道線後,表示手划不深過水道線[圖(a), (b), (c)]

  2. Catch and cradle as much water as possible. The goal is to catch the most water with your palm and forearm and push it towards your feet. [Picture (b)]

    盡可能掌握多的水。目標是以手掌和前臂抓最多的水,推向腳的方向。[圖 (b)]

  3. The palm always faces towards the feet. The fingers also point to the side of the pool. The palms never face downward toward the bottom.

    手掌總是朝向著腳。手指朝池邊。手掌從沒朝下。

  4. The finish of the pull is downward to help the body pivot to the other side. Throughout the finish, the palms are still facing back and pushing water that way. [Pictures (d), (e)]

    划手最後以向下結束來作為支點,以幫助身體旋轉到另一側。在結束時,手掌還是朝後推水。[圖(d), (e)]

  5. The pull ends deeper than the hips and the arm fully extended. [Picture (e)]

    划手結束時比臀部深,手臂完全伸展。[圖(e)] 。

Source: USA Swimming: High Performance Tips

Irie Ryosuke 入江陵介 Olympic Games
Silver 2012 London 200 m backstroke
Silver 2012 London 4×100 m medley
Bronze 2012 London 100 m backstroke


Irie Ryosuke入江陵介
看起來像4 beat kick,踢腿像是主要來平衡轉動角度大的身體。
Ha ha,別人是body rolling,Irie是 body rocking。

Irie Ryosuke’s Backstroke Technique
引用Quoted from Coaching Science Abstracts:
It is somewhat difficult to understand how he could be so good in terms of performance with unsymmetrical actions, a non-streamlined body position, and poor overkicking in his technique.
就Irie不對稱的動作,不流線體位,過度踢腿的技術而論,有點難理解他如何能成就如此優異佳績。

Rebecca的感想:當看到越多,知道越多,人應該更謙卑於自己所知,自己所知永遠只是一小部份,在某種前提下的結果。
老實說,我第一次看到Irie游的樣子,真的有點傻眼,與我之前所看到的超優雅仰式(Ryan Lachte, Lenny Krayzelburg)游法大相逕庭,我想很多人也許會說Irie改正泳姿,成績會更好,我也好想知道,也許他已試過,選擇了自己體能條件較能配合發揮的技術,等著看吧!
Ryosuke Irie's Backstroke

Ryosuke Irie’s Backstroke

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About Rebecca

A pretty lazy human being ! Lazy to do any boring stuff.

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